Home

>

Academy

>

Articles

>

Which Diesel Engine Oi…

Which Diesel Engine Oil is Right for You?

A number of oil specifications have been developed to ensure that lubricants provide all of the lubricating oil functions required in modern engines.

In the USA, the API oil classification system provides a simple designation for engine oils to ensure that the proper type of oil is selected for an engine. Oil classification systems have been also in place in the EU and Japan.

1. American Petroleum Institute – API:

The API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System provides a simple designation of letters and numbers that allows engine manufacturers and oil marketers to clearly provide users with the information they need to ensure that the proper oil is selected for an engine. Each letter/number designation identifies a service category (e.g., CI-4) which is linked to a series of tests that the oil must pass before it is allowed to carry that designation.

The below table outlines some API “C” series service categories and the general performance requirements that the diesel engine oil must meet.

CategoryYearEngine Service Description
CF1994Intended for off-road engines which use fuel containing more than 0.5% sulfur. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Wear and corrosion of copper containing bearings.
CF-21994Intended for 2-stroke diesel engines. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Wear and corrosion of copper containing bearings.
CF-41991Intended for high speed4-strokeon-highway heavy-duty diesel engines meeting 1991 emission standards. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Corrosion and wear of copper containing bearings.
– Oil consumption.
– Ring and liner wear.
– Oil thickening due to soot.
CG-41995Intended for high speed4-strokeon-highway heavy-duty diesel engines meeting 1991 emission standards.

In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CF-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Oil filter plugging due to soot.
– Oil thickening due to oxidation.
– Valve train wear.
– Foaming.
CH-41998Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesels engines meeting 1998 US EPA emission standards and using fuels with less than 0.5% sulfur.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CG-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Viscosity loss due to shear.
– Sludge.
– Oil volatility.
CI-42002Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2004 US EPA on-highway emission standards implemented in 2002. Formulated to sustain engine durability where EGR is used. Intended for use with fuels having less than 0.5% sulfur.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CH-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Low temperature pumpability.
– Elastomer compatibility.
– High-temperature/high-shear viscosity.
CI-4 Plus2004Meets all requirements of CI-4 but includes increased resistance to oil thickening from soot and increased shear stability.
CJ-42006Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2007 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CI-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Sulfated ash, phosphorous and sulfur content.
CK-42017Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2007 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CJ-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Engine oil aeration.
– Engine oil oxidation.
– Viscosity loss due to shear.
FA-42017Intended for some high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2017 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
This classification provides the same benefits as CK-4 oils but is also intended to enable fuel economy benefits for heavy-duty engines by introducing oils with lower high temperature/high shear viscosity than CK-4 oils.
CategoryYearEngine Service Description
CF1994Intended for off-road engines which use fuel containing more than 0.5% sulfur. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Wear and corrosion of copper containing bearings.
CF-21994Intended for 2-stroke diesel engines. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Wear and corrosion of copper containing bearings.
CF-41991Intended for high speed4-strokeon-highway heavy-duty diesel engines meeting 1991 emission standards. Provides control of:
– Piston deposits.
– Piston, ring and liner scuffing.
– Corrosion and wear of copper containing bearings.
– Oil consumption.
– Ring and liner wear.
– Oil thickening due to soot.
CG-41995Intended for high speed4-strokeon-highway heavy-duty diesel engines meeting 1991 emission standards.

In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CF-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Oil filter plugging due to soot.
– Oil thickening due to oxidation.
– Valve train wear.
– Foaming.
CH-41998Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesels engines meeting 1998 US EPA emission standards and using fuels with less than 0.5% sulfur.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CG-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Viscosity loss due to shear.
– Sludge.
– Oil volatility.
CI-42002Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2004 US EPA on-highway emission standards implemented in 2002. Formulated to sustain engine durability where EGR is used. Intended for use with fuels having less than 0.5% sulfur.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CH-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Low temperature pumpability.
– Elastomer compatibility.
– High-temperature/high-shear viscosity.
CI-4 Plus2004Meets all requirements of CI-4 but includes increased resistance to oil thickening from soot and increased shear stability.
CJ-42006Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2007 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CI-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Sulfated ash, phosphorous and sulfur content.
CK-42017Intended for high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2007 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
In addition to providing control of the parameters listed for CJ-4 oils, the classification provides additional control of:
– Engine oil aeration.
– Engine oil oxidation.
– Viscosity loss due to shear.
FA-42017Intended for some high speed 4-stroke diesel engines meeting 2017 US EPA on-highway emission standards.
This classification provides the same benefits as CK-4 oils but is also intended to enable fuel economy benefits for heavy-duty engines by introducing oils with lower high temperature/high shear viscosity than CK-4 oils.

2. European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association – ACEA:

The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association – ACEA is an organization that represents the 15 most important European motor vehicle manufacturers. According to their statement, ACEA is an advocate for the automobile industry in Europe, representing manufacturers of passenger cars, vans, trucks and buses with production sites in the EU.

Among many other activities ACEA defines specifications for engine oils so called ACEA Oil Sequences. The sequences are usually updated every few years to include the latest developments in engine and lubricant technology.

ACEA itself does not approve the oils, they set the standards and oil manufacturer’s may make performance claims for their products if those satisfy the relevant requirements.

CategoryYearEngine Service Description
E42022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Wear.
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements.
– Running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for engines:
– Without particulate filters.
– Some EGR engines.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.
E82022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Wear.
– Soot handling and lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements.
– Running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals.


It is suitable for:
– EGR engines, with or without particulate filters.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.

It is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel.
E72022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Bore polishing.
It further provides:
– Excellent wear control
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements.
– Running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for engines:
– Without particulate filters.
– Most EGR engines.
– Most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.
E112022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Bore polishing.
It further provides:
– Excellent wear control
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V, and Euro VI emission requirements.
– Running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for:
– EGR engines, with or without particulate filters.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.

It is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel.
CategoryYearEngine Service Description
E42022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Wear.
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements.
– Running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for engines:
– Without particulate filters.
– Some EGR engines.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.
E82022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Wear.
– Soot handling and lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V and Euro VI emission requirements.
– Running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals.


It is suitable for:
– EGR engines, with or without particulate filters.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.

It is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel.
E72022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Bore polishing.
It further provides:
– Excellent wear control
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements.
– Running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for engines:
– Without particulate filters.
– Most EGR engines.
– Most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.
E112022Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to:
– Piston cleanliness.
– Bore polishing.
It further provides:
– Excellent wear control
– Soot handling.
– Lubricant stability.

It is recommended for highly-rated diesel engines:
– Meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV, Euro V, and Euro VI emission requirements.
– Running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals.

It is suitable for:
– EGR engines, with or without particulate filters.
– Engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems.

It is designed for use in combination with low-sulphur diesel fuel.

Chemist Abdelrhman Sabry

Facebook Comments

Chemist Abdelrhman Sabry

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *